Frequently Asked Questions :-

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Leading cause of obesity in girls,menstrual problems in women and female infertility. Common symptoms are.

1.Weight gain ,especially around waist;Central Obesity.

2.Irregular ,delayed or absent periods.Few may have heavy periods.

3.Increased body hair growth,scalp hair loss,and Acne(pimples) due to increased male hormones.

4. Inability to conceive,mainly due to lack of egg formation.  (anovulation).

How To Prevent

1. Life style modification:Weight Control: ACHEIVE  IDEAL. BMI  20-24.height of 5 feet -50 kg.5'5feet -55 kg low carbohydrate,low fat,high protein diet.Regular Exercise .

2. Metformin : To patients who have abnormal glucose tolerance or raised insulin levels or are very obese.

3. Cycle regularisation for preventing endometrial hyperplasia .Low dose pills or Progestins.

4. Infertility : Ovulation Induction using drugs/injections.

5. Hirsuitism/Acne: special pills, Dermatology referral.

PCOS diet / weight loss diet

"The human body heals itself and nutrition provides the resources to accomplish the task."

An ideal diet plan for the PCOS not only comprises food; the timing of meals, frequency and duration of the meals and the cooking methods are also equally important.

Ideally, within thirty minutes of waking up, we need to take some form of food to kick start our metabolism. A good balanced breakfast is a must, skipping that would be a big NO NO. It is better to eat every 3 to 4 hours, rather than taking infrequent big meals. Sounds good doesn’t it, I am not joking, you need to eat more often if you want to lose weight and control your PCOS.

Eating should not be a hasty affair, take plenty of time, enjoy every bite to savor the goodness and flavor of the delicious food that nature has kindly provided us (we do not know how long we are going to get this!). To a great extent, digestion should happen in the mouth itself, so make it a point to chew the food properly. Brain takes about twenty minutes to register that stomach is full, hence if you eat quickly you are at the risk of consuming more food than is needed. Even though your stomach is full you will go on eating, so go slow.

Likewise, it is vital to understand the significance of glycemic index as well.
Glycemic index (GI) l indicates the level of sugar in blood after food intake. The rate at which blood sugar level shoot up is different, depending on the type of carbohydrates that you eat. PCOS women need low glycemic index foods, as the sugar will spurt up only little and that too slowly. This will help to keep the insulin level low. The insulin levels are way too high in PCOS, which is the main reason for insulin resistance and high androgens ( Androgens are male hormones, which are present in normal women in small quantities ).

Reduce calorie intake if your weight is on higher side, around 60 % of women with PCOS are overweight and it has been proven that a significant number of women benefitted from losing weight.

Abnormal smear and Colposcopy

1. When should I have my first cervical screen test?

Most countries offer the first cervical screen test as soon as you become sexually active. We offer at the age of 25 years as it is rare to develop cancer before the age of 25. Any changes in the cells and small abnormalities that are seen in women less than 25 years of age are usually normal and will tend to resolve themselves naturally. Over the age of 25, changes in the cervical cells are considered more serious.


2. How often should a cervical screen be done?

Every 3 years for 3 consecutive years, if all results are negative then 3 yearly.


3. Why do abnormal smear cells develop?

Most but not all of cervical cancer cells occur due to infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). The HPV virus is sexually transmitted and is very common among women in 20's. Most women will be clear of the virus with in 1 year, but some do not manage to clear the virus due to a poor immune system. These women are most at risk of developing abnormal cervical cells.


4. Are there any vaccines against HPV?

Two vaccines have been developed against HPV - Gardaril and Cervarise. There are more than 100 types of HPV, but only 12 are high risk for urogenital cancer. Gardaril gives 99% protection against HPV 6/11/ 168 18 responsible for genital warts and cervical cancer and Cervarise gives 99% protection against HPV 16/18 responsible for cervical cancer. You will need to take 3 injections at 0-1-2 and 6 months. We cannot stress how important it is to consider these vaccines seriously before becoming sexually active of if you are sexually active


5. What is C1N1/2/3?

C1N, also known as cervical dysplasia, is the potentially premalignant transformation and abnormal growth (dysplasia) of squmous cells on the surface of the cervix. C1N is graded according to the size of abnormalityin the nucleous. C1N may be kept under observation for up to 2 years as it may be simply due to HPV infection. C1N 2 and 3 are strongly precancerous and should be removed.


Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding

Although abnormal vaginal bleeding can be distressing, a fast, accurate diganosis will usually setup anxieties at ease. There are many possible causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding ranging from polyps and febroids in the walls of the uterus through to ovulatory disfunction and ectopic pregnancy.

There are many possible causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding:

Ovulatory Disfunction

It is the most common reason for abnormal bleeding and occurs commonly after puberty and before menopause. Harmonal imbalance occurs due to non ovulation or improper function of the developing follical or corpus luteum. This leads to al lack of support to the endometrium and irregular shreading and bleeding. It may also happen in reproductive years du to a functional ovaria cyst. Mostly the dignosis is clinical, aided by ultrasound and sometimes a endomtreal aslirate (in case of premenopausal patients). Management is simple and mostly oral tablets.

Endomentreal Polyps

Polyps are benign growths which occur in any body cavity due to an overgrowth of the cells of the lining. When they occur in the endometrium they can lead to irregular bleeding. They are commonly seen in women over the age of 30 years. Diagnosis is by transvaginal ultrasound, serrolaystergually or hysteroscopy. Treatment is surgical.


Uterine fibroids

Fibroids or myomas are benign lumps in the wall of the uterus. They can be very small, the size of a grape or large mimicking a pregnant uterus. Mostly they are a chance finding on ultrasound or vaginal examination. They need to be treated only if they are large in size or causing any problem like heavy bleeding, pain, difficulty in passing urine, infertility, etc.



It occurs due to some cells lining the inside of the uterus migrating into the walls of the uterus. During periods they also bleed and this collection of blood increases every month and causes pain. Edinomyosis is usually seen in women more than 35 years of age. It causes enlargement of uterus and painful periods. It may be diagnosed by ultrasound or MRI. Surgery is the option if medical management fails to control the pain.


Endometrial Cancer

Cancer of the Lining of the uterus is an important cause of ebnormal bleeding particularly after the age of 44 years and especially after manopause. It can be usually diagnosed by vaginal ultrasound but sometimes an endometrial biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment is surgical.


Cervical Cancer

Cancer of the cervix is more commanly seen in women over age of 30 and rarely before. In the early stage, it does not cause any problem. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection leads to cervical cancer. It can cause irregular bleeding but usually leeds to postcoital bleeding. Pap smear examination is recommended for screening and diagnosis.


Ectopic pregnancy, threatened miscarriage

Pregnancy related bleeding can be a reason for abnormal bleeding, even if one has not missed a period. Many women believe that if they have not missed a period then it is not possible to be pregnant, that is not true. It is possible to have bleeding as results of complications during the pregnancy, that is why it is important to have a pregnancy test whenever you have any abnormal bleeding. Sometimes it is necessary to measure the pregnancy harmone beta HCG to exclude ectopic pregnancy or abnormal growth of the plcenta e.g. Hydatidiform mole.


Postcoital bleeding

Bleeding after an intimate relation is described as provoked bleeding and is due to contact with cervix. This may be due to a benign polyp on the cervix, a vascular and inflamed cervix and more importantly may be due to a pre cancerous abnormality on the cervix. It is therefore imperative that you see a doctor to examine the cervix both by the naked eye and by colposcopy.


Family planning choices: Make a informed choice


1. Abstinence

2. Birth control pills

3. Birth control sheet (Depoprovece)

4. Birth control sponge (Today Sponge)

5. Breast feeding as birth control

6. Condom

7. Fertility awareness based methods

8. IUD

9. Morning after pill (emergency contraception)

10. Sterilization for women

11. Vasectomy


Today we have many safe and effective birth control methods available with us. All of us who need birth control want to find the method that is best for us. Everybody has different needs while choosing a method. Learning about each method will help you make your decision. Use the list of birth control methods to read about the methods

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